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Selecting the Right Container

Selecting the Right Container 

Making the best choice takes science!

The photomicrograph on the left is the surface of a plastic container that contained a chemical that should never have been stored in that container. Where did the plastic go? Into the chemical as a contaminate. How did this impact the results of the analysis?

In analyzing and sourcing products for our clients, there are several observations we have made:

  1. People often spend money needlessly buying specially cleaned or certified containers that aren't required for the assay.
  2. People seldom consider that containers that start out life clean, will get dirty over time just sitting in a box without a cap. Buying without a cap saves money. Contaminated samples do not.
  3. Caps actually have an expiration date. They can degrade and become dangerous when stored for long periods of time.
  4. Glass containers are thermally sensitive and will break if hot liquids are poured in. NEVER store glass bottles outside in the winter. If you do, they MUST be warmed to room temperature to avoid breakage.
  5. Many people store chemicals in containers that they were never designed for. 

Here is everything you would want to know about containers and caps, starting with how to select the right plastic for your chemicals.

Chemical Guidelines for Plastics

CHEMICAL GUIDELINES FOR PLASTICS CHART
Chemical
LDPE
HDPE
PP
PVC
PET
PS
Acetic Acid, glacial
B
A
A
D
D
D
Acetone
B
A
A
D
D
D
Alcohol: Ethyl
B
A
A
A
A
B
Alcohol: Methyl
A
A
A
A
A
A
Alcohol: N-Propyl
A
A
A
A
A
B
Aliphatic (Straight Chain) Hydrocarbons
D
B
B
A
A
D
Ammonia 28%
B
A
A
A
C
B
Battery Electrolyte
A
A
A
B
B
B
Benzene, Xylene and other Aromatic Hydrocarbons
D
D
D
D
D
D
Bromine, liquid
D
D
B
D
D
D
Carbon Tetrachloride and other Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
D
D
D
D
D
D
Chromic Acid below 40%
A
A
A
A
A
B
Chromic Acid 40% or above
B
A
A
A
C
D
Dipropylene Glycol
A
A
A
A
C
A
Ethers, simple
D
D
D
B
C
D
Ethyl Acetate and other Simple Esters
B
B
B
D
D
D
Ethylene Glycol
A
A
A
A
B
A
Formaldehyde 36%
A
A
A
A
C
D
Formic Acid
A
A
A
A
C
B
Gasoline
D
B
B
B
B
D
Hexachlorophene
B
A
C
B
C
C
Hydrobromic Acid 48%
A
A
B
A
C
B
Hydrochloric (muriatic) Acid 36% or 22.4º Be
A
A
A
A
B
B
Hydrofluoric Acid up to 52%
A
A
A
A
C
D
Hydrofluosilicic Acid up to 26%
A
A
C
C
C
B
Hydrogen Peroxide up to 30%
A
A
A
A
A
B
Kerosene, Naphtha, Mineral Spirits, Petroleum, Distillate or Stoddard Solvent
D
B
C
B
B
D
Mercury, metal
A
A
A
A
C
A
Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK)
B
B
B
D
D
D
MEK Peroxide
C
A
C
D
C
D
Nitric Acid under 20%
A
A
A
A
A
D
Nitric Acid 20-70%
B
B
B
A
C
D
Oxalic Acid
A
A
A
A
C
A
Phenol
B
B
A
B
D
D
Phosphoric Acid 85% or 59º Be
A
A
A
A
C
B
Potassium Hydroxide
A
A
A
A
C
B
Quaternary Ammonium Salt Solutions
A
A
A
A
C
B
Sodium Hydroxide
A
A
A
A
B
B
Sodium Hypochlorite to 6% available Chloride
A
A
A
A
CA
B
Sodium Hypochlorite 7-15% available Chloride
A
A
B
A
C
B
Sulphuric Acid, cond. to 93% or 66º Be
B
B
A
B
D
D
Trichloroethane
D
D
B
A
A
D
Turpentine
D
D
B
A
A
D
Water
A
A
A
A
A
A

 

KEY
A. Satisfactory
B.Probably Satisfactory
C. No Information Available
D. Unsatisfactory
LDPE- Low Density Polyethylene
HDPE- High Density Polyethylene
PP- Polypropylene
PVC- Polyvinyl Chloride
PET- Polyethylene Terephthalate
PS- Polystyrene

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Finding a chemical compatibility chart isn’t as easy today as it used to be in the days when we used paper catalogs. Globe Scientific (a key supplier we use for plastics and glass products) provides an excellent reference chart in the back of their catalog which I have converted to an Excel file. You can download this file by clicking on the link below. I hope you find this free tool valuable.

Chemical Compatibility Chart

Table of Contents

Plastic Container Styles

Plastic Bottles & Jars

Boston Round BottlesCylinder BottlesJarsLab Style BottlesMedia BottlesModern Round BottlesOblong BottlesPacker BottlesStraight Sided, Round BottlesWide Mouth Round Bottles 

Plastic Jugs & Large Volume Vessels

CubitainersDairy JugsFluorinated JugsF-Style JugsHedpaksOpen Head PailsRound Handled JugsSquare CarboysSquare Handled JugsWinpaks 

Plastic Vials & Tubes
Cryogenic VialsHinged VialsSnap Cap Vials

Glass Container Styles

Glass Bottles & JarsBoston Round Bottles ,Composite Test JarsFrench Square BottlesGraduated Medium Round BottlesMedia BottlesOil Sample BottlesSquare Tablet BottlesStandard Wide Mouth BottlesStraight Sided Round JarsWide Mouth Packer Bottles 

Glass Vials & Tubes
Chromatography VialsSample VialsTubes

Additional Glass Vessels
BeakersFlasksGraduated CylindersJugs

How are closures sizes defined?

How do I measure a bottle and/or bottle cap accurately?How to measure a cap diameterHow to measure a bottle neck opening diameterHow to determine the thread finish

Cap Material
Thermoset or Phenolic (Bakelite)MetalPolypropylene (Thermoplastic

Liner Material
F217 & PTFE Lined CapsPulp/Vinyl Lined CapsPolyCone Lined CapRubber Lined CapsRubber Backed/PTFE Faced Caps.030 Solid Polyethylene Lined CapsAluminum Foil Lined CapsTin Foil Lined CapsSturdeeSeal PE Foam Lined CapsF422 HDPE Foam Lined CapsUnlined CapsPlastisol Lined Caps
Pulp/Polyethylene Lined Caps 

Plastic Bottles & Jars

Boston Round Bottles 
Natural LDPE Boston Round Bottles are the perfect solution for liquid sample handling in a squeezable bottle. These bottles are virtually unbreakable and more resistant to stress cracking than HDPE bottles. They retain their impact strength at very low temperatures. 

Cylinder Bottles 
Narrow mouth Cylinder Bottles are perfect for handling liquid samples in the lab. The shoulder style allows you to pour small quantities without spilling. Clear PVC Cylinder Bottles provide an excellent resistance to oxygen permeation, oils and good water barrier characteristics. Transparent and rigid, they allow for easy visual identification of the amount of product inside. HDPE cylinder Bottles are translucent and impact resistant. HDPE bottles are ideal for high-speed filling, demanding pharmaceutical specifications and the rough handling of interstate shipping. Available in natural or white which offers a degree of light protection. Wide Mouth Cylinder Bottles offer all the benefits of the cylinder shape and HDPE properties but with the added advantage of a wider opening.
 

Jars 
Jars are ideal for storing and collecting specimens and lab supplies. Wide neck and straight sides facilitate easy recovery of contents. Rigid Clear Polystyrene Jars offer glass-like clarity with a smooth surface that is slip-resistant. Natural Polypropylene Jars are translucent and durable. Polypropylene offers greater tolerance to high temperatures than HDPE and better contact clarity. Co-polymer Jars are made from polypropylene and styrene. This combination gives the jars great temperature tolerance and rigidity. White Polypropylene Jars are ideal for solids, powders and cosmetics.
 

Lab Style Bottles 
HDPE Lab Style Bottles feature excellent chemical resistance and the leak resistant closure make these bottles ideal for storing, shipping and packaging liquids for long periods. Available in narrow or wide mouth and are supplied with linerless polypropylene caps. 


Media Bottles 
Plastic Media Bottles are a safe alternative to glass and are available in PETG round or polycarbonate square. PETG Media Bottles are certified non-pyrogenic, nuclease (DNase/RNase) free, particle free and Bioburdern/Cytotoxicity tested. Includes new-patented PE tamper-evident cap. They are gamma irradiated SAL 10-6 and packed in double layer shrink wrapped in trays. Polycarbonate Square Media Bottles are supplied with a leak-proof blue PP cap. They are autoclavable and are ideal for steam sterilization of all biologicals, liquids, reagents, media and buffers. They are manufactured in an ISO:9002 facility and are produced with medical grade, virgin Lexan® polycarbonate that is durable, chemically inert, non-leaching and optically superior. 


Modern Round Bottles 
Modern Round Bottles are available in Nylon/PE or HDPE. Nylon/PE modern rounds are nylon bottles co-extruded within a polyethylene bottle banded together by an adhesive. The advantage of this process is that no trace ingredients can get into the "sidewall maze". Containers produced by this process offer improved protection for non-polar hydrocarbons. Available in amber or natural. HDPE Modern Round Bottles feature side panels to allow for label application. The sloped shoulder of this bottle allow for maximum fill capacity. 


Oblong Bottles 
Natural HDPE Wide Mouth Oblong Bottles offer a space saving design for the workbench. These bottles feature a wide mouth opening, ideal for sampling solids and powders. HDPE provides an excellent moisture barrier and are impact resistant. They are ideal for high-speed filling, demanding pharmaceutical specifications and the rough handling of interstate shipping. 


Packer Bottles 
Packer Bottles are ideal for oil analysis. PET is stress and impact resistant and provides a good alcohol and solvent barrier. Amber PET Packer Bottles protect from harmful light and UV rays. Heavyweight Clear PET Packer Bottles feature a heavywall construction (24 gram thickness) that will withstand the use of a vacuum pump and higher sampling temperatures. Clear PET Packer Bottles make sample identification a snap. 


Straight Sided Round Bottles 
HDPE Straight Sided Round Bottles are the ideal large capacity plastic container. The extra wide opening and jar style allow for easy insertion and recovery of contents.
 

Wide Mouth Round Bottles 
Natural HDPE Wide Mouth Rounds are ideal for general lab use with solids and powders. These HDPE bottles provide an excellent moisture barrier and are impact resistant. They are ideal for high-speed filling, demanding pharmaceutical specifications and the rough handling of interstate shipping. Natural HDPE Tall Wide Mouth Round Bottles have a space saving design and are ideal for general use with solids and powders. 


Plastic Jugs & Large Volume Vessels

Cubitainers 
Cubitainers are low-density flexible polyethylene cube-shaped inserts inside a heavy-duty corrugated outer carton. Easy to ship, handle and pour. Designed to collapse as product is dispensed. The non-glug design assures product flow in a continuous, uninterrupted stream. A reversible well design permits opening to be raised or depressed for pouring and storage. Built to withstand the rigors of hazardous chemical packaging

Dairy Jugs 
Natural, lightweight dairy jugs are available in capacities from 8 to 128 ounces. These inexpensive, general purpose containers are ideal for sampling and storeroom use.
 

Fluorinated Jugs 
Fluorinated jugs provide the barrier protection you need for large volumes of liquids. Fluorinated jugs offer permeation protection 100 times better than HDPE alone. These jugs provide improved product odor control and container shape retention. They guard against product weight loss, permeation, and discoloration of the container. 


F-Style Jugs 
HDPE F-Style jugs are ideal for environmental applications. The molded panel allows for easy label application and features a space saving rectangular shape.
 

Hedpaks 
The Hedpak is a rigid, high-density polyethylene container. An integral handle on the top face with molded pouring vent, along with a finger recess on the bottom of the bottle make it easy-to-use. The square design saves space when storing and shipping. 


Open Head Pails 
Durable HDPE pails are perfect for storing and shipping large volumes of solids, powders and liquids. Ideal for general shop or warehouse usage. Pails have a rounded hand grip with metal bail. Various color pails and lids are available in pallet quantities. 


Round Handled Jugs 
Handled Rounds provide the right solution when you need to store large volumes of product. Large grasp area makes for precise handling. Wide Mouth Handled Rounds will hold up to 128oz and has a finger grip for easy pouring. 190 gram Heavyweight Handled Rounds are ideal for high speed filling.
 

Square Carboys 
5 Gallon square carboys are equipped with large handles making it easy for lifting and carrying. Ribbed side panels for give added strength. Ideal for storage and transport of chemicals and agrochemicals, or pharmaceutical preparations.
 

Square Handled Jugs 
Square Handled Jugs are made from durable HDPE. The space saving design on these jugs makes them ideal for the workbench. These HDPE jugs provide an excellent moisture barrier and are impact resistant. 


Winpaks 
Winpaks are cylindrical in shape with spout placement in line with the sidewall for maximum removal of product during dispensing. The unit is also equipped with a swing handle on the top face. Designed for the secure, dependable shipment and storage of liquid products.
 

Plastic Vials & Tubes

Cryogenic Vials 
Cryogenic Vials are ideal for storage or transport of material at extremely low temperatures. Smooth and uniform inner surface for easy filling and sample preparation. 


Hinged Vials 
Polypropylene Hinged Vials are leak-proof and airtight and are produced by using a Sterile-by-Process (aseptic) method. Hinged vials are manufactured using a unique, patented process that closes the vial lid while still in the mold and prior to ejecting the container. The process uses temperatures ranging from 390–440 °F which is too high to support living organisms. Hinged vials remain closed until they are opened for the first time by the user. The flip-top is integrally hinged to the container, allowing the user to open and close the container with one hand. 

Snap Cap Vials 
Polystyrene offers great rigidity and glass-like clarity. Polyethylene caps "snap" on and off quickly and easily. Great for storing bench top accessories and field sampling.
 

Glass Container Styles

Glass Bottles & Jars

Boston Round Bottles  
Boston Round Bottles are general use bottles that are perfect for liquids, product storage, and field or plant sampling projects. They feature a round body, rounded shoulders and narrow screw neck opening. These environmentally sensitive bottles help eliminate waste and help to insure product integrity for long term storage. Clear / Flint Boston Round Bottles offers maximum visibility and sample integrity. Amber & Cobalt Blue Boston Round Bottles protect contents from UV rays and are ideal for light sensitive products

Composite Test Jars 
Clear / Flint Composite Test Jars are clear wide-mouth straight sided jars that are ideal for sampling and provide maximum content visibility. These bottles are designed without shoulders for maximum storage capacity. 


French Square Bottles 
Clear / Flint French Square Bottles provide maximum content visibility. The space saving design saves on shelf and storage space. The wide mouth opening is ideal for mixing, storing and sampling. 


Graduated Medium Round Bottles 
Bottle Beakers® also known as Graduated Medium Rounds are excellent for use with biological and pathological specimens, but can also be used for storing industrial laboratory chemicals and reagents. These clear / flint bottles are designed with a slight shoulder for easy pouring and handling. Graduated in ml and ounces. Mix, measure, and store in the same container. 


Media Bottles 
Media Bottles are manufactured from PYREX® borosilicate glass for chemical and thermal resistance and can be used for storage as well as mixing and sampling. Regular Media Bottles have permanent white enamel graduations and marking spots. PYREXPlus® Media Bottles have a protective PVC coating helps prevent glass from shattering and reduces spills. Teal enameled graduations and marking spot. 

Oil Sample Bottles 
Clear / Flint Oil Sample Bottles are provided with a #6 cork and feature a unique design. These clear bottles are ideal for field analysis in the petroleum industry. The design of this bottle also makes it an excellent choice for displaying product samples.


Square Tablet Bottles 
Clear / Flint Square Tablet Bottles provide maximum content visibility. Square glass bottles feature a space saving design for bench tops with limited storing space. These wide mouth bottles are ideal for mixing, storing and sampling. 


Standard Wide Mouth Bottles 
Clear / Flint Standard Wide Mouth Bottles feature a wide opening making them the ideal general purpose bottle. Applications include pharmaceutical, chemical, environmental, and food packaging and storing. 


Straight Sided Round Jars 
Clear / Flint Straight Sided Round Jars are ideal for sampling and are designed without shoulders to provide maximum storage capacity and visibility. 


Wide Mouth Packer Bottles 
Amber Wide Mouth Packer Bottles feature a wide opening making them the ideal general purpose bottle for solid sampling. Applications include pharmaceutical, chemical and environmental. Ideal for light sensitive products. 


Glass Vials & Tubes

Chromatography Vials 
Borosilicate glass Chromatography Vials are available with crimp, snap top or screw necks. Large or standard openings with your choice of color coded graduation spots or marking spots which can be written on with a #2 pencil. Our quality chromatography vials work with most autosamplers. 


Sample Vials 
Type I borosilicate Glass Sample Vials assures the contents integrity. Vials are ideal for storing and sampling small amounts of liquid and powders. Choose clear for maximum visibility or amber, cobalt blue or green for protection from UV rays. Cobalt blue and green vials are commonly used for aromatherapy and essential oil packaging. 

Tubes 
Quality borosilicate culture and test Tubes are offered in a variety of sizes and styles including flat or round bottom, rimless, beaded rim or screw thread. Test tubes have beaded rims or are available with sidearms. 


Additional Glass Vessels


Beakers 
Borosilicate glass Beakers with spout are manufactured to provide balance between thermal shock resistance and mechanical strength. Most size have a scale to indicate approximate content and an extra large marking spot. All beakers are designed to ASTM E-960. 


Flasks 
Borosilicate glass Flasks are available in variety of styles & sizes. Boiling flasks are available with round or flat bottoms. Glass culture flasks with long neck or low form narrow mouth flask. Erlenmeyer flasks in heavy duty, filtering, narrow & wide mouth, & low Actinic. Available with or without stoppers or caps. Filtering Flasks have sidearm tabulations and are graduated to show approximate capacity. Volumetric flasks in heavy duty, PYREXPlus®, snap cap, low Actinic, Class A and economy. Kjeldahl flasks, specially styled, have tooled finished necks for extra strength and uniform stopper fit. 

Graduated Cylinders 
Borosilicate glass Graduated Cylinders measure accurate volumes of liquids. Available calibrated "to contain" or "to deliver", graduated cylinders can be used to calibrate other glassware. Graduations available in single or double metric scale. 


Jugs 
Glass Jugs with molded finger grips are the perfect storage solution for large quantities of liquid. Amber Jugs protects against harmful UV rays. For larger capacities with the chemical resistance of glass, choose our 5 gallon water bottle. You provide the stopper in either a #16 cork or #6.5 rubber. 

How to Select the Right Size Cap for your Bottle

Everyone from consumers to scientists know that the cap on your bottle has to fit correctly to prevent leakage, evaporation and potentially dangerous spills. What many don't know is how to make sure the cap is the right size for the bottle.


Before you select a cap, you need to know the correct size. Cap sizes are not interchangeable – a 28-400 cap will not fit properly on a bottle with a 28-410 neck finish. Cap sizes and the neck finish on a bottle have a unique system of measurements.

How are closures sizes defined?

Screw thread closure sizes are expressed in two numbers:

  • The first number refers to the diameter of the closure or bottle opening (in mm) and refers to the nominal diameter measured across the inside of the cap at the opening or the outer diameter of the bottle.
  • The second number represents the GPI thread finish and refers to the height of the cap and the style of threads on the cap and the container. GPI refers to the Glass Packaging Institute which standardized neck finishes many years ago for both glass and plastic containers.

How do I measure a bottle and/or bottle cap accurately?

The Qorpak Cap and Bottle Measurer makes taking those crucial measurements easy. 


Click on the link below to download the Qorpak cap measurer.  If printed on traditional 8.5 x 11" paper with standard print options, cap measurer will print to actual size.

Qorpak_CapMeasurer2.pdf

You can also email us at info@labproservices.com and let us know where you would like us to send this sturdy cap measurer.

Once you have your Qorpak Cap Measurer, follow these easy steps:


To measure a cap diameter, measure the cap from one side of the inner wall of the cap to the opposite inner wall. Simply place the cap on the lip of the left side of the Qorpak Cap Measurer with the notch flush against the cap inner wall. Read your measurement at the opposite cap inner wall. Measurements are shown in millimeters. This is also commonly called the "T" dimension.

To measure a bottle neck opening diameter, measure the diameter of the outermost threads by placing the opening of the bottle firmly against the notch on the right side of the cap measurer. Read to the outer edge of the opening on the opposite side of the neck opening.

To determine the thread finish, verify how many times the threads pass one another to determine the finish. For example, a bottle 1.5 thread turns has a 410 neck finish. This is also called the "H" dimension. Refer to the Thread Finish Guide on the back of the cap measurer or use the following chart to view common thread finishes.

Common Thread Finishes


Cap Material

Thermoset or Phenolic (Bakelite) 

These caps are known for providing the widest range of chemical compatibility and for being the most temperature tolerant of plastic closures. They also provide the most consistent adherence to close dimensional tolerances. Ideal for pharmaceutical applications. Thermoset closures cannot be remelted after they are formed. Common resins include urea, phenolic, and melamine. 

Metal 

Metal caps offer the widest range of temperature tolerances and are very resistant to fracture from impact. Metal caps are great for industrial and food applications. A metal closure is manufactured from either steel (coated with anti-corrosive coating of either chrome plate or tin plate) or aluminum. 

Polypropylene (Thermoplastic) 

Polypropylene caps are known for good impact strength, cost effectiveness, and pliability. They can be remelted after they are formed. 

Liner Material

F217 & PTFE Lined Caps 

Foam backed PTFE liners resist attack from virtually all chemicals at room temperature and provides resilience for a tight seal with a low moisture transmission rate. F217 has a low density foam core between two solid layers of LDPE. Uses include: Analytical lab samples, high purity chemicals, strong acids, solvents, environmental samples, pharmaceuticals, and diagnostic reagents. The color green easily identifies the PTFE liner system. Available in Thermoset and Phenolic caps. 

Pulp/Vinyl Lined Caps 

Phenolic caps with pulp and vinyl liners are perfect for general use. The liner is made of a vinyl coating applied to high density polyethylene coated paper and then it is laminated to pulpboard. This general purpose liner is commonly used for food, beverage, medical and chemical applications packed at less than 120° F., including mild acids, alkalis, solvents, alcohols, oils and aqueous products; not recommended for active hydrocarbons or bleaches. Available in Phenolic caps. 

PolyCone Lined Caps

These caps form an exceptionally tight seal and offer a good chemical barrier. This liner molds itself around the sealing areas of the finish as the cap is screwed on, virtually eliminating leakage, evaporation, contamination, binding and backing off. Great for everything from liquids, to soaps, to macro-invertebrates. Available in Phenolic caps. 

Rubber Lined Caps 

Black phenolic caps with rubber liners are autoclavable. This liner is FDA approved for food and pharmaceutical applications. Excellent properties of resilience, resistance to moisture vapor and relatively low gas transmission. Also widely used for packaging injectables. Great for culture work. They also provide the most consistent adherence to close dimensional tolerances. Available in Phenolic caps. 

Rubber Backed/PTFE Faced Caps

Designed for the ultimate in product safety. Autoclavable PTFE provides totally inert inner seal and surface facing the sample or product. 

.030 Solid Polyethylene Lined Caps

Caps with solid PE liners offer good chemical resistance and low moisture vapor transmission rate and is great for nail polish remover and higher concentration acids & alkalis. Good for non-oil products filled at room temperature. Because this lining system is paperless, your samples will not be contaminated with fiber or paper particles from the closure. Available in Phenolic caps. 

Aluminum Foil Lined Caps

These caps are typically used for food applications. Free of odor and taste problems. Also can be used for non-acid, non-alkaline products. Great for organic solvents, chrome cleaners, brake fluids and mineral oils. Available in Phenolic and Metal caps. 

Tin Foil Lined Caps 

These caps offer good chemical resistance and are typically used with solids and powders. Good resistance to hydro-carbons, alcohols, ketones and oils. Not recommended for acids and alkalis. Available in Phenolic caps. 

SturdeeSeal PE Foam Lined Caps 

These polypropylene caps have excellent sealing characteristics and offer good chemical resistance including acids, alcohols, alkalis, aqueous products, cosmetics, household oils and solvents. 

F422 HDPE Foam Lined Caps 

Also called Acid Caps, these polypropylene caps are acid resistant. This F422 liner is comprised of a .38” LDPE core sandwiched between identical layers of .002” - .003” virgin HDPE. 

Unlined Caps

Unlined polypropylene closures are available in white or black. These caps are autoclavable and are suitable for many dry products. 

Plastisol Lined Caps 

Metal caps with a Plastisol liner offer excellent resistance to mild acids as in food products. Permits “hot fill” operations to effectively produce a vacuum seal. 

Pulp/Polyethylene Lined Caps 

These metal caps are a great general purpose closure. They are ideal for powders and non-acidic food products and consumer products such as jar candles and honey. 

Cap Glossary

 


top of pageA
Application Torque– The torque force, measured in inch-pounds, required to screw a closure onto a container.

Applicator Cap– A closure designed to apply the contents of the container.

top of pageB
Back-Off– A term used to denote relaxation of forward thrust, i.e. loss of torque following application of the closure. Back-off can be affected by top loading, compressibility and resiliency of the closure liner, consistency of application torque, and mechanical interaction of the closure and bottle.

Backing Liner– A compressible material, usually pulp or foamed polyethylene, to which the facing liner is attached or adhered. This compressible material compensates for any irregularities on the sealing surface.


Band– That portion of the closure that releases when the closure is removed from a bottle. The band is used for tamper indication.


Bead– A depressed or raised circle or ring around a container or closure.


Binding– Excess drag when the closure is applied to the bottle. Binding is usually the result of interference.


Bottoming-Out– A condition where the bottom skirt of the closure makes contact with the container (usually the shoulder or transfer bead) before the land area of the container and the closure (lined or linerless) create a seal.

top of pageC
Cavitation– The number of molding stations within a mold.

Cavity– A mold component which forms the exterior or external surface of the closure.


Cellulose Band– A band made of hydrated cellulose film extruded in continuous tubing form. The cellulose tubing is then processed and printed in this form and cut into individual bands of predetermined lengths. The celon is allowed to air dry when it is applied to the finish of the container. During the air-drying period, the cellulose band shrinks to form a skin-tight film over the finish of the bottle.


Center Gated Mold– A mold in which the cavity is filled with resin through an orifice interconnecting the nozzle and the center of the cavity area.


Child Resistant Closure (Abbreviated “CR”)– A closure requiring dissimilar motions making removal by a child difficult. Child Resistant closures are subject to current government regulations.


Chucks– A component of a capping machine which holds the closure for application to the container.


Closure– Any structure or device designed to close off the opening of a container and prevent loss of its contents.


Closure Lining Machine– A high speed, specialized machine using a punch’s die or specialized cutters to automatically cut and insert liners into closures.


Closure Height– The overall height of the closure proper. Closure height is measured from the closure top to the open end of the closure. Closure height can be considered in terms of “inside height” or “outside height.”


Closure Removal Torque– The amount of force necessary to loosen, open, or remove a closure from a bottle.


Closure Skirt– The vertical wall of a closure.


Closure Stripping Torque– The amount of force required to cause the closure and/or bottle finish to distort and override the matching closure-bottle threads.


Cocking– Mis-application of a closure to a container. The closure’s appearance is uneven on the container or it is pulled off to one side, due to an uneven downward pull of threads. Cocking is normally caused by over torquing or an out of spec. “S” dimension container.


Compression Molding– A molding process whereby thermoset plastic material is dropped into a cavity and formed under pressure by a force. The process is primarily done on a rotary molding machine.


Continuous Thread Closure (Abbreviated “CT”)– A non-interrupted spiral design threaded closure. The main purpose of a CT closure is to mate with corresponding bottle threads and provide sealing and re-sealing of the container.


Core– A mold component which forms the internal surface of the closure. The core also includes the threads.


Curl– A tubular structure formed at the open end of a metal closure to provide a smooth, strong edge. The curl facilitates automatic handling of the closure.


Cycle– The sequence of operations in a process to complete one set of parts. The cycle is taken at a point in the operation and ends when this point again starts.


Cycle Time– The time during which one molding cycle is completed. Cycle time comprises injection of melt, cure, recovery, part ejection, and clamping for next shot.

top of pageD
Deep Screw Cap– A cap having a deeper skirt (more “H”) and generally a heavier thread than the 400 finish series.

Dispensing Closure– A snap on or threaded closure which allows for product dispensing, and usually resealing, without removing the closure from the package.


Dome– A closure which has a rounded top surface.


Dropper Cap– A closure that includes an attached dropper and rubber bulb.

top of pageE
“E” Dimension– The smaller diameter of the inside of the closure measured “thread to thread.” The “E” dimension corresponds to the “E” (outside wall) of the container.
top of pageF
Facing Liner– The liner material attached or adhered to the backing liner. The facing acts as a barrier to the chemical reaction of the product.

Finish– The configuration of a container top shaped to accommodate a closure.


Fitment– A plastic component that snaps over the land area and functions as an orifice reducer or blocker.


Flash– Excessive undesirable plastic materials on containers or closures formed along mold seams or parting lines. Flash results from plastic flowing into the clearance between mold components.


Flowed-in– A method of applying fluid sealing compounds with a nozzle.


Friction cap– A closure held on by friction upon application to the container, building up resistance to the movement of the closure.

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G-cap (G-450)– A 70 millimeter cap with a deep screw threaded skirt (450).

Gasket– A liner applied between the sealing surface of container lip and closure. A gasket provides the ultimate seal.


Gate– An orifice through which the molten resin enters the cavity. A gate is the small restricted opening connecting the runner to the cavity.


Glued-In Closure Liners– Closure liners attached to the inside roof of the closure by a hot melt adhesive.

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“H” Dimension– The height of the bottle finish, measured from the sealing surface, in a line parallel to the axis of the finish and tangent to the threads on the finish, down to a point where the line intersects the body (shoulder) of the container. The “H” dimension is also the inside height of the closure, measured from the bottom of the closure, in a line tangent to the threads of the closure, terminating at the inside, top of the closure. The “H” dimension does not include any liner (if used), or “linerless” seal, ribs, membranes, or any other sealing element dimensions.
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“I” Dimension– The diameter of the opening of the container measured from the inside wall to the inside wall.

Induction Seal Liners– A specialized laminate containing aluminum foil and a plastic heat sealable film which hermetically seals a container through use of an “Induction Capsealing Machine.”


Inner Seal– An additional seal of moisture proof material applied to the top of container prior to or during the application of the closure.


Interference– A condition where an exterior diameter in the finish area of the bottle is larger than the mating interior diameter of the closure.


Internal Threads– The threads on the interior of the closure.


Interrupted Threads– Non-continuous threads on the closure causing gaps. Interrupted threads are normally used in beverage closures thread on (neck) finish of bottles in which the thread has gaps or discontinuities. The gaps are at the parting line of the mold.


Injection Mold– A mold into which a plasticated material is introduced from an exterior heating cylinder.


Injection Molding– A process by which a plasticized material is forced into a mold.

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Knurl– The indented or crimped portion on the skirt at the top of the cap used for holding the liner in the cap. The knurl is also used as a grip for removing the cap. The knurl provides a non-skid surface during the threading operation.
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“L” Dimension– The vertical distance from the sealing surface to top part of neck bead, i.e., where the upper most part of bead intersects the container neck.

Land– The lip of the container to which the closure liner or land seal linerless feature compresses or conforms to tolerance.


Land Seal– A sealing device which seals by applying pressure to the top or land of the container finish.


Liner– A disk of paper, cork, foam, plastic, etc., retained in a closure to provide a flexible barrier between the closure and the sealing surface of the container.


Liner Well– The space provided in a closure for a liner.


Linerless Closure– A thermoplastic closure incorporating a molded-in sealing feature which, when applied to a container with the appropriate finish, seals most liquids within the container.


Lug Cap– A closure with raised internal impressions that inter-mesh with identical threads on the finish of container.

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Matte Finish– A coating surface that displays no gloss when observed at any angle. Matte finish is also referred to as a “flat finish.”

Mechanical Breakaway Bands– A closure with a portion or section of the skirt perforated or weakened in some manner so when the closure is opened, the section is designed to break apart and either remain on the container or attach to the closure to indicate the package has been opened.


Metallizing– Applying a thin coating of metal to a non-metallic surface. Metallizing can be done by chemical deposition or by exposing the surface to a vaporized metal in a vacuum chamber.


Modified Buttress Thread– Commonly referred to as “M” style. The modified buttress thread was developed, with a 10 degree pressure angle, to offer more closure-to-bottle thread contact.


Mold– The combination of mold frame and tooling components needed to form a closure.


Mold Frame– The plates and components required to direct plastic to the tools that form closures and remove the closures from the mold.


Molding (compression)– A process of shaping or forming material through the use of molds, heat, and pressure.


Molding (injection)– A process of shaping or forming plastic objects from powder or granule form in a mold by cooling the previously heated plastic.


Mouth– The open end of the cap opposite the top.

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Neck– The part of a container where the shoulder cross section area decreases to form the finish.

Neck Rings– That part of the mold equipment which forms the finish of the bottle.


Non-Threaded– Designates items which do not require threading action when applied to glass or plastic containers. Examples of non-threaded closures are snap caps, sifter fitments, pour-out fitments, etc.

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“O.D.”– The abbreviation for Outside Diameter.

Offset Neck– The vertical axis of the neck finish is off center from the vertical axis of the container.


Orifice– An opening in a plug, fitment, or dispensing cap through which the product is dispensed.


Overseal– An additional closure that tamper-proofs the primary closure. The overseal is usually made of foil or aluminum.

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Phenolic– A type of thermoset plastic.

Pipette– The glass or plastic tube portion of a medicinal dropper closure.

Pitch– The number of turns a thread would circle a neck if the neck were extended one inch. Pitch is commonly referred to as threads per inch. (T.P.I.)


Plastisol– A liquid mixture of resins and plasticizers solidified by the application of heat.


Pour-out Finish– A bottle finish having uniform undercut lips. The pour-out finish is designed to facilitate pouring without dripping.

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Removal Torque– The torque force, measured in inch-pounds, required to unscrew a closure from a container.
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“S” Dimension– Locates the position of the bottle thread with respect to the sealing surface. The “S” dimension is the vertical distance from the sealing surface to the intersection of the finish wall and the top part of the first part of bottle thread where full depth contour exists.

Sealing Surface– The lip portion of the finish which makes contact with the sealing gasket or liner and forms a seal.


Shell– The hat shaped, preliminary form of a metal closure prior to being threaded and knurled.


Shrink Factor– The change in dimension which a closure undergoes after being molded. Shrinking is generally caused by cooling and subsequent contraction of the plastic material.


Sifter Fitment– A plastic component of a package designed to allow the shaking out of dry products, such as a table salt shaker. The sifter fitment snaps over the glass bead with a metal or a plastic cap applied over the fitment.


Skirt– The vertical wall of a closure.


Snap Fit Closure– A closure held in place through the use of beads or undercuts rather than threads.


Spout Cap– A closure designed to facilitate the pouring of the contents of the container.


Stacker Cap– A closure designed specifically to nest with the bottom plate of a container to facilitate the stacking of filled containers one on top of each other.


Stress Crack– An external or internal crack in the plastic caused by tensile stress less than that of its short-time mechanical strength. The development of such cracks is frequently accelerated by the environment to which the plastic is exposed. The stresses which cause cracking may be present internally or externally or may be combinations of these stresses. The appearance of a network of fine cracks is crazing.


Stripping Torque– The amount of application torque that causes the threads of the closure to override the container threads.

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“T” Dimension– The major diameter of the thread on a Continuous Thread. closure.

T.P.I.– SeePitch.


Tamper Band– The tamper-evident feature of the closure. The tamper band is usually connected to the closure skirt by leaders or bridges.


Tamper Evident Breakaway Band Closure– The section of the closure skirt that is weakened or perforated in some manner. When the closure is opened that section is designed to either remain on the container or stay partially attached to the closure. The tamper evident breakaway band closure is designed to reveal removal of the closure was attempted.


Tamper Evident Closure– A closure or liner system incorporating a feature that visually indicates if the closure has been removed or the product has been exposed. Removal of the closure or liner system activates the indicating feature.


Tamper Evident Tear Band– A closure with a band, usually with a tab for grasping, designed to be detached by the consumer. The tamper evident tear band is designed to reveal removal of the closure was attempted.


Thermoplastic– A plastic material that repeatedly softens when heated and hardens when cooled.


Thermoset– A material that will undergo or has undergone a chemical reaction by the action of heat, catalysts, ultraviolet light, etc., leading to a relatively infusible and cross-linked state. Typical of the plastics in the thermosetting family are the epoxies, glytals, melamines, urea formaldehyde resins, and phenolics. Thermosets are typically supplied in powder, granules, or modules, and are normally processed by compression molding. Thermosets cannot be remolded once processed.


Thread– Complimentary, helical protrusions on the closure and the container.


Thread Profile– The cross section configuration of a closure thread.


Thread Engagement– The actual contact made by the closure and bottle finish thread. Thread engagement is usually specified in number of turns.


Thread Start– The position at which the full thread depth toward the open end of the closure first occurs.


Thread Turns– The measurement of thread revolutions in a closure or on a container finish.


Tinplate– A thin sheet of steel with a layer of tin used in manufacturing metal closures.


Tolerance– The permissible maximum deviation from specified dimensions, quantities, or specifications. The amount of variation allowed from the nominal dimension.


Tooling– The specific components in contact with the plastic that form the closure.


Top Load– The amount of weight bearing on the top of a package.


Torque– The rotational movement used during application or removal of a continuous thread closure from a container.


Torque Meter– A devise used to measure application and removal torque. It is expressed in pound-force inches and commonly referred to as “inch-pounds.”

Utop of page
Unlined Closure– A closure without a liner disk inserted, but designed to accept one.
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Valve Cap– A closure that includes a valve to regulate the flow of the product from the container.

Value Seal– A sealing devise which seals on the inside of the neck finish of the container in the fashion of a plug. A controlled inside finish diameter is required to accomplish a seal.

 

 

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